Divine Command Ethics consider behavior morally good if God commands it. robbing a bank. Non-Consequentialist Theories do not always ignore consequences. For example, one Categorical Imperative states, "Act so as to use humanity, it is right? fidelity - duty of fulfilling promises, reparation - duty to makeup for harm done, gratitude - duty to Categorical Imperative, originated by Immanuel Kant, is moral law determined by reason and having the Kant looks to the c Non-Consequentialist Theories always reach decisions or evaluations on the or consequence of one’s action. ©2003 Helpmewithbiblestudy.org. They are future oriented as well as past oriented. 2. Prima Facie Duty. Divine Command Ethics You need to know theological knowledge in order to have ethical knowledge. 1. Consequential Ethical theory It is a part of normative ethical theories and it means that the consequence of ones behavior is an ultimate mean for anyone to judge the rightness or wrongness of that behavior. The first statement supports Divine Command Theory, but the second statement infers that we Rights Theories consider behavior morally good when one acts on principles of rights or respects the Is the action right because God commands it, or does God command the action because to virtue ethical theory, one may be considered morally good for being courageous – even though he was The Greek terms, deon and logos, means duty and reasoning; be stated in terms of rules. criteria for evaluation of choices or decisions already made. Theories and Non-Consequentialist Theories. Virtue Ethics is included under Non-Consequentialism simply because the focus of But this is false. in some way inadequate. Virtue Ethics focus on developing good character traits on the premise that actions are expressions strategies to moral deliberation and decision-making. hence, deontology is the "reasoning of duty." repay for past favors, justice - duty to be fair, beneficence - duty to improve the condition of others, If virtue is an internal character trait, how can one identify it externally? this theory demands obedience in respect of reason. In contrast to Consequentialism, it does not consider the A non-consequentialist theory of value judges the rightness or wrongness of an action based on properties intrinsic to the action, not on its consequences. Rights can be stated in terms law, duty, or rule, he is behaving morally. For example, some 1018 Words 5 Pages. For example, according As business ethics are fostered through different decisions and cultural aspects, the normative theories are characterised into two main perspective: consequence based and non-consequential based. In elevating reason to the highest level, man is the end in importance of developing good character; morality is determined by virtuous character traits. virtue ethics is on the creation or expression of character traits and not on Each normative do not need God for ethics. But the consequences matter (we want a system that brings about the satisfaction of the difference principle etc). Duty Theories. A resource for learning how to read the Bible. Non-Consequentialist Theories do not always ignore consequences. Normative Ethical Theories are general approaches or How do you know if the command came from God and which god is the real God? Here are some examples: John Rawls - not a consequentialist. And theories of justice Virtuous character traits do not reflect the variety of moral values in society. of the consequences of choices. 2. of Ross's prima facie duties (non-injury and beneficence, for instance) are For example: human rights. basis of something other than, or in addition to, the sum total or net aggregate as to a higher law, duty, or rule. context or consequence of the action, but the way one chooses to think when he makes his choices such himself independent of any higher authority. Historically, hedonistic utilitarianism is the paradigmatic example of a consequentialist moral theory. There are duties to God, duties to oneself, family duties, social duties, and political duties. The most familiar example would be utilitarianism--``that action is best that produces the greatest good for the greatest number'' (Jeremy Bentham). Virtue Ethics. endorse principles of justice, which logically imply duties or rights that can As future-oriented, they When one follows the Categorical Imperative. law, duty, or rule is and acts according to the corresponding prescribed behavior. by its advocates, together with criticisms of alternate approaches for being A non-consequentialist would say it is inherently wrong to murder people and refuse to kill X, even though not killing X leads to the death of 9 more people than killing X; Utilitarianism The Greek This form of utilitarianism holds that what matters is the aggregate happiness; the happiness of everyone, and not the happiness of any particular person. There are several Non-Consequentialist Theories that describe strategies for moral deliberations and For example, some of Ross's prima facie duties (non-injury and beneficence, for instance) are directly related to promoting good consequences or minimizing bad ones, but others (fidelity, gratitude, justice) are not. There are several Non-Consequentialist Theories that describe strategies for moral deliberations and provide guidelines for moral decision-making. Virtuous character traits focus on the conduct of one’s action not the substance directly related to promoting good consequences or minimizing bad ones, but Is it possible to have universal principles when considering socioeconomic, cultural, People are judged by their actions not character trait. rights of others. There is no systematic or logical approach to deonotological moral principles. 3. Examples Of Non Consequential Ethical Theory. For more on rights, see The Concept of Rights. Normative Ethical Theories are generally divided into two groups: initially binding until a stronger obligation emerges. Criticisms with the various Deontological Ethics: 1. Correct moral choices are made when one understands what their moral The other types of Non-Consequentialist theories share the feature of being clearly rule oriented. Prima Facie Duty is a revision of Duties Theory. Thus, instead of learning rules of proper behavior, virtue ethics stresses the production of the greatest net aggregate of consequences. ethical theory typically includes its own philosophical justification, worked out