The chapter first focuses on theories concerned with realistic conflicts, which deal with perceptions of rational fears, then on fears surrounding beliefs and values, and finally on those, largely influenced by the psychodynamic theory, which focus on irrational, intrapsychic, fears. Our agent- The Study of Ethnocentrism, Stereotype and Prejudice: Psycho‐Analytical and Psycho‐Dynamic Theories Number 24, 2008 239 and Campbell (1972) suggested that the term ethnocentrism is a relationship of group‐centeredness with self‐centeredness (103). Inventing Western Civilization. 116 0 obj <>stream Numerous explanations propose that people are ethnocentric because they are afraid, threatened, and insecure, and find security in the group and its ethnocentrism. %%EOF Registered in England & Wales No. 2. Then, it focuses on theories that assume that humans are ethnocentric because they want to feel good about themselves, and this is achieved through a sense of superiority of one’s ingroup over others, as well as those theories that assume that ethnocentrism is useful to ethnic groups, and especially their elites and socially dominant people, when they dominate or exploit other ethnic groups or when the elites dominate or exploit the rest of their own ethnic group for self-aggrandising purposes. Ethnocentrism prevents one from seeing another individual's point of … Patterson, Thomas C. 1997. Ethnocentrism is the term anthropologists use to describe the opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct. Numerous explanations propose that people are ethnocentric because they are afraid, threatened, and insecure, and find security in the group and its ethnocentrism. This chapter critically reviews these explanations. Behaviors associated with ethnocentrism include cooperation with members of the in-group, but not out-groups. The term is frequently heard in situations where inter-ethnic relations and ethnic issues are of concern. Here, we'll check out the causes and negative effects of xenophobia. It provides protection to group members by, creating sense of belonging among them, Those Members who are weak, poor, hopeless and helpless are encouraged by joining, hands of it with them. Inventing Western Civilization. It goes without saying that the community will be looked down upon by others and on a global platform as well. Ethnocentrism means that one may see his/her own culture as the correct way of living. 69 0 obj <> endobj Ethnocentrism can cause societal polarization. New York: Monthly Review Press. Ethnocentrism and Racism Sources: 1. Ethnocentrism and Racism Sources: 1. Sumner defines ethnocentrism as: "[The] 30990675 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG © 2020 Informa UK Limited, Behavioral Sciences, Politics & International Relations, Social Sciences. Another group of explanations proposes that people are ethnocentric because it helps them increase their own or their group’s importance, esteem, … We show that ethnocentric behavior can emerge from a simple evolutionary model of local competition between individuals. Ethnocentrism, and more generally in-group bias, is a widely observed empirical phenomena in human societies. Positive Effects of Ethnocentrism It encourages social solidarity in groups and in society by which the forces of co-operation become stronger. It has many aspects and occurs in various forms (LeVine and Campbell 1972).In many contexts, people seem to divide the population into those who are considered as part of their group or their “type” (what we will call the in-group) and the rest who are seen as outsiders (the … Another group of explanations proposes that people are ethnocentric because it helps them increase their own or their group’s importance, esteem, prestige, power, and material well-being. Ethnocentrism is a nearly universal syndrome of attitudes and behaviors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Ethnocentrism is the process of judging another culture exclusively from the perspective of one's own. ��+�E ѓ;��$�U-o"0�m��j݄���U(΋� �T�ݪ�;�2Ho_�1��j2�}ا�Y�ȍ7>�yO�q��h���{��MC����2���O�&�� w�:l��Ϭ��`���z��U��4�>�E��f�:�����5B��I���w�a�p6Au.6ˍMa��d�3x$E�u?�=��"(�\x* �mX�N�z��ð�ө�g(��T����a��\��I. An archaeologist summarizes the history of racism and ethnocentrism along with comments on Europeans who rejected both. cause of these conflicts is the interaction between ethnocentrism and socioeconomics. Finally, the chapter discusses relevant explanations that tend to focus equally on fear and self-aggrandisement as causes of ethnocentrism. Xenophobia has an adverse effect on the society as well as economy of a region. We show that ethnocentric behavior can emerge from a simple evolutionary model of local competition between individuals. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of JIBES University, Jakarta doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.158 International Congress on Interdisciplinary Business and Social Science 2012 (ICIBSoS 2012) Social Media Contribution Towards Ethnocentrism Abdul Rauf … %PDF-1.5 %���� Ethnocentrism—What It Is and Why Anthropologists Reject It. 0 Ethnocentrism is a slippery concept that different disciplines and individuals use in diverse, inconsistent, and incompatible ways. Ethnocentrism may be a redirected Ethnocentrism is the belief that one's own cultural way of thinking is superior to all other cultures. Here, we'll check out the causes and negative effects of xenophobia. On the other end of the continuum, the tendency for people to see their own way as the only right way can be dangerous and lead to pathological forms of ethnocentrism that result in prejudice, 2. An archaeologist summarizes the history of racism and ethnocentrism along with comments on Europeans who rejected both. Solution Summary This 414 word solution provides insight and advice on the cause and effects of ethnocentrism, including a review of the historic roots of the word and advise on how to approach researching the topic. Ethnocentrism works to reinvigorate the study of ethnocentrism by reconceptualising ethnocentrism as a social, psychological, and attitudinal construct. 96 0 obj <>/Encrypt 70 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<7FD18C0C5BF5ABE7A5AA0D391044C312><722E8B61C6B56A429FFB6B03D20A2ACC>]/Index[69 48]/Info 68 0 R/Length 124/Prev 236467/Root 71 0 R/Size 117/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Please click 'Get Access' to see if you or your institution has access to this content. Patterson, Thomas C. 1997. Causes and Effects of Xenophobia, the Strange Fear of Strangers. endstream endobj startxref It becomes a barrier in intercultural communication when and individual refuses to believe that another culture's beliefs have any value. Ethnocentrism forms the basis for patriotism and the willingness to sacrifice for one's central group. Behaviors associated with ethnocentrism include cooperation with members of the in-group, but not out-groups. h�bbd```b``N���@$C ��D���e@$�f0�D2��H�w`��`�y0;̞f��7�f��HA� � ��-XH2�o�� &��ŧ��f@����L@w^�30҉���t�@� ��� The Ethnocentrism Concept The term "ethnocentrism" stems from a more general concept developed by Sumner [1906]. It is easier to be scared of something or someone who is different than you then it is to embrace the diversity that can develop through the intermingling of ideas. Two, ethnocentrism has adversely affected socioeconomic development of the country especially during the Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 65 ( 2012 ) 517 – 522 1877-0428 2012 The Authors. Ethnocentrism—What It Is and Why Anthropologists Reject It. Ethnocentric people compare their culture to others on such elements as religion, behavior, language, customs, and norms. Causes and Effects of Xenophobia, the Strange Fear of Strangers. Ethnocentrism is a nearly universal syndrome of attitudes and behaviors. New York: Monthly Review Press. In the beginning, ethnocentrism was a purely sociological construct, describing ingroup vs. outgroup conflicts. It goes without saying that the community will be looked down upon by others and on a global platform as well. Some would simply call it cultural ignorance. ethnocentrism in the international corporate strategy development process. Xenophobia has an adverse effect on the society as well as economy of a region.